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代词

语法复习专题——代词

一、考点聚焦

代词分为九类:人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、相互代词、指示代词\疑问代词、连接代词、不定代词、关系代词。大多数代词具有名词和形容词的作用。

1、人称代词

1)人称代词作主语用主格,作宾语、表语用宾格,但应注意以下4中情况:

①作主语的人称代词如果孤立地使用于无谓语动词的句子中,或在这种句子中与动词不定式连用,常用宾格。

Does any of you know where Tom lives?

Me.

What! Me (to) play him at chess? No!

②句子中代词作宾语或宾语补足语时,与所替代的名词在人称、数、格在意义上一般要保持前后一致。

The thief was thought to be he.(the thief是主格,故用he代替)

They took me to be her.他们误以为我是她。(me是宾格,故用her替代)

③作表语人称代词一般用宾格,但在强调句型中,被强调部分代词的格不变。

I met her in the hospital.It was her who I met in the hospital.

④在比较级的句子中thanas后用主格、宾格都可以。如:He is taller than me(I).但在下列句中有区别。

I like Jack as much as her.=I like both Jack and her.

I like Jack as much as she.=I like Jack and she likes him, too.

(2)两个以上的人称代词并列,其次序排列原则:

①在并列主语中,“I”总是放在最后,排列顺序为:二 一(人称)。宾格me也一样。

You ,she and I will be in charge of the case.

Mr. Zhang asked Li Hua and me to help him.

②第三人称,男女两性并用,男先女后。

He and she still don’t agree to the plan.

(3)几个人称代词的特殊用法。

we/you(口语)常用来泛指一般人。

she可以代表国家、船只、大地、月亮等。

The “Titanic”was the largest, wasn’t she?

2.物主代词

1)名词和形容词性物主代词各自的语法功能。

2one’s own…=...of one’s own句式的转换。

3)某些固定结构中常用定冠词代替物主代词。

如: take sb. by the arm, be wounded in the leg.

3.反身代词

1)反身代词的语法功能:宾语、表语、主语或宾语的同位语。

2)反身代词和某些动词连有,构成固定短语。

enjoy oneself, feel oneself, make oneself at home, make oneself understood

3)反身代词还可用于某些成语中。

for oneself为自己或独立地,of oneself自然地,自动地

by oneself独自地,in oneself本身性质,beside oneself喜怒哀愁至极

This problem gets a chapter to itself.这个问题占了一章(独有)。

Just between ourselves, I don’t think much of him.私下地说我并不怎么看重他。

They were discussing about it among themselves.(相互共同)

Left to himself he began to write.别人走后只留下他,他写了起来。

I’m very angry with myself.生自己的气。

4.相互代词(each other, one another

相互代词无人称、数和格的区别,在句中作宾语。其所有格分别为each other’s one another’s ,作定语。

一般来说,each other指两者之间,one another指三者或三者以上之间,但现在区分已不明显。

5.指示代词(this, that , these, those, such, same

指示代词具有形容词和代词两种词性,在句子中可以作定语、主语、宾语或表语等。

1)指示代词thisthat的区别。

this (these)一般指时间或空间上较近的人或物;that(those)常指时间或空间较远的人或物。

This is my desk and that is yours.

In those days they could not go to school.

this常指后面要讲到的事物,有启下的作用;that则指前面讲到过的事物,有承上的作用。

I want to tell you this: the English party will be held on Saturday afternoon.

He hurt his leg yesterday. That’s why he didn’t come.

③为了避免重复,常用thatthose代替前面已提过的名词。

The weather of Beijing is colder than that of Nanjing.

The ears of a rabbit are longer than those of a fox.

this在电话用语中作自我先容,that询问对方;thisthat可以当副词用,意思相当于副词so

2suchsame的用法。

such指“这样的”人或事,在句中作主语和定语。

Such was the story.

We have never seen such a tall building.

same指“同样的”人或事,在句中作主语、表语、宾语和定语,same的前面要用定冠词the.

The same can be said of the other article.

另一篇文章也是同样的情况。(主语)

Whether he can do it or not, it is all the same to me.

他是否能做这事,对我来说都一样。(表语)

6、疑问代词(who, whom,which,what,whose

疑问代词在句中作主语、宾语、定语和表语。

1who/what

①询问姓名或关系。——Who is he? ——He is my brother./He is

Henry.询问职业或地位。——What is he ——He is a lawyer/teacher.

What/who 作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于说话人的视点,可单数也可复数。

What is /are on the table?

Who is/are in the library?

(2)whichwhowhat

which表示在一定范围内,而whowhat则无此限制。

I found two books on the desk. Which is yours?

7.连接代词和关系代词

连接代词与疑问代词的形式相同,主要有whowhomwhosewhatwhich以及它们与ever合成的代词whoeverwhomeverwhateverwhichever等。它们用来引导主语从句,宾语从句和表语从句,即连接复合句中的主句和从句,并在从句中担任一定的句子成分,以连接代词引起的名词性从句前不能再加that.

关系代词是用来引导定语从句的代词,它们包括whowhomwhosewhichthat等。这两类代词的用法详见“名词性从句”和“定语从句”部分。

8、不定代词

不定代词主要有:alleacheverybotheitherneitheronenonelittlefewmanymuchotheranothersomeanyno等。还有由someanynoevery构成合成代词,不定代词具有名词和形容词的性质,并有可数和不可数之分,在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、同位语、定语、状语等(everyno只能作定语)。下面先容几组主要不定代词的用法与区别。

1someany

一般用法:someany可与单、复数可数名词及不可数名词连有。some一般用于肯定句,any多用于疑问、否定或条件句。

He has some Chinese paintings.(定语)

Some like sports, others like music.(主语)

Ask me if you have any questions.(定语)

Do you have any questions to ask?(定语)

I don’t know any of the students.(宾语)

特殊用法:

any用于肯定句表示“任何”的意思。

Any child can do that.(定语)

You may take any of them.(宾语)

some用于单数可数名词前表示“某一”。

Smith went to some place in England.(定语)

③在期待对方回答yes 时,some用在表示请求或邀请的问句中。

Would you like some bananas?(邀请)

Mum, could you give me some money?(请求)

some 用于否定句表示部分否定。

I don’t know some of the students.(宾语)

someany在句中还可作状语,作副词。some意为“大约”相当于“about,any则表示程度,意为“稍,丝毫”。如:

There are some 300 workers on strike.

Do you feel any better today?

(2) One, both, all

one作定语、表语、主语或宾语,可以指人或物,表示“一个”的意思,其复数为ones,指人时,其所有格是one’s,反身代词是oneself.

One should try one’s best to serve the people.(主语、定语)

This is not the one I want.(表语)

oneones可以代替上文提到过的名词,以免重复,oneones前面分别可以用thisthatthesethosethewhich等词修饰。如:

These books are more interesting than those ones.

Here are three pens. Which one is yours, this one or that one or the one in the pencil-box?

both用作定语、宾语、主语和同位语,可以指人或指物,表示“两者都”的意思。

This maths problem can be worked out in both ways.(定语)

Both of the boys are here.(主语)

We both are students.(同位语)

注意:both用于否定句,表示部分否定;表示完全否定时,用neither。如:Both of us are not teachers.大家俩并不都是教师。

Neither of us is a teacher. 大家俩都不是教师。

both不能放在thethesethosemy等之后,而应放在它们的前面。如:Both my parents like this film.

Both the /these boys are tall.

all用作主语、表语、宾语、定语、同位语,指“全部的”、“整个的”,可与可数或不可数名词连用,除少数情况外,一般不与单数可数名词连用,与复数名词连用时,表示“所有的”、“全部的”,指三个或三个以上的人或物。

He gave me all the money.他把全部的钱给了我。

All the schools are flooded.所有的beplay体育都被淹了。

I told him all about it. 我把一切都告诉了他。

That’s all for today.今天就在这儿。

They have all been to Xi’an.他们都去过西安。

注意:all 用于否定句,表示部分否定,完全否定用none。如:

Not all the ants go out for food.(or: All the ants don’t go out for food.)并不是所有的蚂蚁都出去寻找食物。

None of the money is mine.这钱一分也不是我的。

3manymuch

manymuch都表示“许多”,但many修饰或代替复数可数名词,much修饰或代替不可数名词。它们在句中可作主语、宾语、定语。much有时用作状语。

4few, little; a few, a little

fewlittle表示没有多少,含否定意义;而a few a little表示有一些,有几个,含肯定意义。另外,fewa few 修饰可数名词;littlea little修饰不可数名词。它们在句中常用作定语、主语和宾语。

5nonone

no=not any,表示“没有”,用来修饰可数名词或不可数名词,通常作定语,none代替不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;代替可数名词作主语时,谓语动词可用单数也可用复数形式。none还可以在句中作宾语。

注意:none既可以指人又可以指物,no one只能指人。

6eachevery

each(各个),指两个或两个以上的人或物,侧重个体,在句中作主语、宾语、定语和同位语。every(每个),指三个或三个以上的人或物,侧重整体,在句中只能作定语。

Every student it our class has a dictionary.(定语,强调班上“所有的人”)

Each student in our class has a dictionary.(定语,强调各个个体)

Each of them has been there.(主语)

The teacher gave each of the students a new textbook.(宾语)

We each got a ticket.(同位语)

7eitherneither

either是“两者中任何一个”的意思,可修饰或代替单数可数名词,neither是“两者中没有一个”的意思,可以修饰或代替单数可数名词,它们可在句在作主语、宾语或定语。如:

Here are two pens. You may take either of them.(宾语)

Neither boy knows French.(定语)

注意:①either也作副词,其意为“也”,用于否定句的句末。He doesn’like tea, and I don’t either.(状语)②eitheror构成连词,意为“不是……就是……要么……要么……”。He is either Japanese or Chinese. neither用作副词,意为“也不”,即“not…either”。He can’t do it, neither can I. neither可与nor构成连词,意为“既不……也不”。Neither he nor you are a student.

8otheranother, the others others

the other表示“两者中的另一个”;“the other + 复数可数名词”

表示“其余(他)的……”;the others表示“其他的人或物”。“othersother + 复数名词”泛指“其他的(别的)人或物”。这些词语在句中可作主语、宾语和定语。如:

He got two books; one is textbook, the other is a novel.

Five of the pencils are red, the others (the other pens)are yellow.

Some are singing,  others are dancing.

another修饰或代替单数可数名词,意为“(三个或三个以上的)另一个”,不能指两者中的另一个,在句中可作宾语和定语。

This coat is too dark. Please show me another.(宾语)

Please give me another book.(定语)

注意:another修饰复数名词时,意为“再,又”。如:Please give me another ten minutes. one … another(a second)… a third…the other…意为“一个……一个……一个……一个”用于三者或三者以上的排列。some…others…others…,意为“一些……一些……一些”。

二、精典名题导解

选择填空

1. The Parkers bought a new house but__________will need a lot of work before they can move in. A.  they         B. it           C. one          D. which

解析:答案为B。分析题意可知,they显然不合,which多引导从句,从此为并列句式,one表示泛指,而此处空格内容指代前面提到的the new house。要仔细区别代词的所指范围,是人还是物,单数还是复数,另应注意句式。

2If you want to change for a double room you’ll have to pay_________$ 15.

A.  another           B. other          C. more        D. each

解析:答案为A。本题考查不定代词用于表示数量附加的用法。“another + 数字 + 复数名词”结构通常用来表示在原有数量上的附加。若选C,正确结构是“数词 + more + 复数名词”。掌握anothermore与数字搭配的位置是此题关键。another放在数字前,more放在数字后。NMET  1995中第25小题命题思路与此题一致。

3. Few pleasures can equal ___________of a cool drink on a hot day.

A.  some        B. any         C. that        D. those

解析:答案为C。本题考查替代词that的用法。that通常在句中替代同类的、特定的但不是同一的事物。本句中that替代the pleasure。句意为“在炎热的夏天几乎没有任何乐趣能与饮一杯冷饮的乐趣相比”。that指代单数或不可数名词,复数用those,表示特指,以避免重复,在比较句型中较为常用,代替可数名词时可换用the one

4. I like          in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright.

A.   this        B.  that         C.  it         D.  one

解析:答案为C。本句考惯用法及代词。Like是及物动词,需要宾语。此处“it”指模糊的情形或环境,无具体指代,其余项均不可。又如:I like it here(我喜欢这儿)。

5.That’s an unpleasant thing to say about your father after          he’s done for you.

A.  something   B.  anything     C.  all         D.  that

解析:答案为C。本题考代词及定语从句。整句意思;在你父亲为你做了所有一切之后再说你父亲(的坏话)是件令人不愉快的事。

6.We needed a new cupboard for the kitchen. So Peter made       from some wood we had.

A.  it          B.  one         C.  himself      D.  another

解析:答案为B。考代词。全句意为:大家需要为厨房填个橱柜,所以Peter用大家所拥有的木头做了一个。代词one替代上文的名词a cupboard,非特指的指代,正合题意。it应指代上文提到的同一事物,为特指,故不可。C项离题意太远,D项指“又”,“再”的意思,亦不可。 

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