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名词

语法复习专题—名词

一、考点聚焦

1.可数名词单、复数变化形式

1)规则变化。

①单数名词词尾直接加-s。如:boy boys, pen pens

②以sx ch sh结尾的单词一般加-es。如:glass glasses, box boxes, watch watches, brush brushes

特例:stomach stomachs

③以辅音字母 + y结尾的变yi再加-es。如:

baby babies, lady ladies, fly flies

④以o结尾的多数加-es。如:tomato tomatoes, potato potatoes, hero heroes。但以两个元音字母结尾的名词和部分外来词中以o结尾的词只加-s 如:radio radios, zoo zoos, photo photos, piano pianos, kilo kilos, tobacco tobaccos 

⑤以ffe结尾的名词复数形式变ffev,之后再加-es。如:wife wives, life lives, knife knives, wolf wolves, self selves, leaf leaves等。特例:handkerchief handkerchiefs, roof roofs, chief chiefs, gulf gulfs, belief beliefs, cliff cliffs

⑥改变元音字母的。如:man men, mouse mice, foot feet,

woman women, tooth teeth, goose geese, ox oxen。特例:child children

⑦复合名词的复数形式。(A)在复合词中最后名词尾加-s。如:armchair armchairs, bookcase bookcases, bookstore bookstores。(Bmanwoman作定语修饰另一个名词时,前后两个名词都要变成复数。如:man doctor men doctors, woman driver women drivers。(C)与介词或副词一起构成的复合名词应在主体名词部分加-s。如:brother-in-law brothers-in-law, passer-by passers-by 

⑧有的名词有两种复数形式。如:zero zeros zeroes, deer

deers deerpenny的两种复数形式含义有所不同。如:pence(便士的钱数),pennies(便士的枚数)

2)不规则变化。

①单、复数同形。如:means, aircraft, deer, fish, Chinese,

Japanese, sheep, works(工厂),cattle

②合成名词的复数。如:boy-friend boy-friends, go-between go-betweens(中间人)grown-up grown-ups

③有些名词通常只用作复数。如:glasses眼镜,clothes衣服,goods

货物,trousers裤子,belongings所有物,wages工资,riches财富, surroundings环境,ashes灰尘, compasses圆规,cattle家畜,congratulations祝贺,have words with sb. 同某人吵架,in high spirits以很高热情地,give one’s regards to sb.向某人问侯,in rags衣衫破烂,It is good manners to do sth.有礼貌做某事。

④集体名词的数。有些集体名词通常只用作复数,如:people,

cattle, police; 有些名词只用作单数,如:machinery, furniture, mankind, jewellery;有些名词既可用作单数又可用作复数,单数看做整体,复数看做集体的各个成员。如:The crew is large.船员人数很多(指整体);The crew are all tired.船员们都累坏了(个体)。

2、不可数名词的数

1)一般说来抽象名词为不可数名词,但当抽象名词表示具体的东西时,可用作可数名词且词义发生变化,主要类型如下:

①抽象名词表示具有某种特性、状态、感情情绪的人或事。如:

抽象名词(不可数)           具体化(个体名词,可数名词)

in surprise惊讶地            a surprise一件令人惊讶的事

win success获得成功          a success一个()成功的人()

win honor赢得荣誉             an honor一个()引以为荣的()

Failure(失败)is the mother of success      a failure失败者

失败是成功之母。

by experience靠经验           an experience一次经历

youth青春                     a youth一个青年人

have pity on sb.怜悯某人       a pity可惜的事情

with pleasure乐意             a pleasure乐事

②抽象名词与a(an)连用,淡化了抽象概念,转化为似乎可以体验到的动作、行为或类别。如:

A knowledge of English is a must in international trade.

Would you like to have a walk (swim, bath, talk) with me?

It is waste of time reading such a novel.

She made an apology to her mother for her wrong doings.

(2)物质名词是不可数名词,但表示数量或种类之多时,可以用作可数名词。如:

①物质名词有形或数的相应物体,有单、复数。如:some coffee一些咖啡,a coffee一杯咖啡,three coffees三杯咖啡,some drink一些饮料, a drink一杯饮料,three drinks三杯饮料,his hair他的头发,a few grey hairs几根白发,glass玻璃,a glass一只玻璃杯。

②物质名词有前置后置修饰时,前面要使用不定冠词。

have breakfast               The road is covered with snow.

have a wonderful breakfast    They have a heavy snow every year.

Time and tide wait for no man.

We had a wonderful time last night.

(3)有复数形式的不可数名词

①有些抽象名词往往以复数形式出现,起到一种丰富语言感情色彩或强调某种特殊状态的作用。如:

Use your brains, please.

They have smoothed away the difficulties.

Have you made preparations for tomorrow’s meeting?

Many thanks for your kindness.

No pains, no gains.

After many failures, they finally succeeded.

②有些物质名词以复数形式出现,表示数量之多,范围之广。如:

The boy burst into tears at the bad news.

The rising waters did a lot of harm to the crops.

The stone bridge broke down in heavy rains.

3.名词所有格

1’s所有格的特殊表示形式有:

     用于表示时间、距离、价格、重量等的名词后,如:today’s

newspaper, five minutes’ walk(drive),five pounds’ weight, ten dollars’ worth of coffee

②用于表示国家、世界、城市等地方的名词后。如:the earth’s planet, the word’s population, China’s industry, New York’s parks

2of所有格的特殊表示方式有:

①表示部分时,一般在所修饰的名词前有一个表示数量的词(atwoseveralsomenomany等),如:Some students of Mister Zhang’s have gone to college.张老师的一些学生已经上大学了。

②表示其中之一,其中一部分的意思时,用:a friend of Tom’s

汤姆的一个朋友(许多朋友中的一位)。

③表示赞扬、批评或厌恶等感情色彩时,应该用:that/this/these/

those + 名词(单、复数)of Mary’s/yours/his/hers。如:

That invention of hers belongs to the world. 她的那项发明是属于全世界的(表赞赏)。

4、名词作定语

英语中有些名词没有其对应的同根形容词,这些名词可以直接用来作定语修饰另一个名词。

1)分类意义。

air pollution 空气污染         boy friend 男朋友

coffee cup咖啡杯              income tax所得税

tennis ball网球               song writer歌曲作家

body language身体语言         road accident交通事故

Nobel Prize诺贝尔奖        

2)时间、地点、称呼等。

Doctor Jack杰克医生            Professor Li李教授

evening school夜校             winter sleep冬眠

street dance 街舞              country music乡村音乐

village people村民            school educationbeplay体育教育

China problem中国问题

3)表目的、手段、来源,所属意义。

reception desk接待台          sports field田径场

stone table石桌                 color TV彩电

weather report天气预报

二、精典名题导解

选择填空

1. It is generally believed that teaching is ___________it is a science.

A. an art much as             B. much an art as

C. as an art much as           D. as much an art as

解析:答案为D。当名词前有whatsoastooquite等词修饰时,其形容词被这些词修饰,组成下列结构,如:What a nice book! This is too heavy a box for me to carry. He is not as honest a boy as Mike.等,应采取too/how + 形容词(副词)+ a(an) + 名词的形式。要记住一些类似的特殊结构,并加以分析。

2. The police are offering a __________to anyone who can give information about the lost key. A.  price         B. prize         C. reward         D. money

解析:答案为Cprice 价格,价钱;prize奖金。D项是钱,属不可数名词,题中所要填的是“酬金,报酬”。注意正确理解名词的含义及其搭配是活用语言的基础,在复习备考中要熟练掌握考纲中一些名词的词义、搭配、习惯等,才能更好辨析名词,从而选择最符合句意的选项。

3.You’ll find this map of great _____________in helping you to get round London.

A.   price          B. cost         C. value          D. usefulness

解析:答案为C。本题考查特定语境中名词的词义及“be of + 抽象名词”结构。Price (价格)cost(价钱,费用,成本)不符合题意,value作“quality of being useful or desirable”解时,常与of搭配,在句中作表语或补语,意为“有用,有价值”。故选择value。注意名词词义辨异及惯用法表达,题中“of + 抽象名词”相当于该名词的形容词形式。

4.If you buy more than ten, they knock 20 pence off        .

A.  a price        B.  price        C.  the price       D.  price

解析:答案为C。本题考冠词和名词。全句合理句意应是:如果你买超过10个,他们从(现在标出的)价格上减价20便士。此处价格是特指的定价,所以C项最佳。

5.The journey around the world took the old sailor nine moths,          the sailing time was 226 days.

A.  of which        B.  during which       C.  from which       D.  for which

解析:答案为B。辨析名词语义, a distance of +数字“……距离”。

6. I keep medicines on the top shelf, out of the children’s           .

A.  reach           B.  hand             C.  hold             D.  place

解析:答案为A。“out of reach”是“超出某人够得着的范围”,即“够不着”的意思,药品应放到孩子够不到的地方。 

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