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介词和连词

语法复习专题五——介词和连词

一、考点聚焦

1、介词的分类与语法功能

1)介词是虚词,不能单独作句子成分,必须与名词、代词(或相当于名词的其他词类、短语或从句等)构成介词短语,在句中充当一个成分。介词分为:简单介词,如atinfor等;合成介词,如withininsideontothroughout等;短语介词,如according toout ofbecause ofby means ofin spite ofinstead of等。双重介词,如from behind / above / underuntil after等。分词介词,如consideringincludingjudging(from / by) 等。

常见的介词宾语:名词、代词、动名词、从句、不定式等。如:

It is going to rain this afternoon according to the weather forecast.

He quarreled with her yesterday.

He succeeded in passing the final exam.

I’m still thinking of how I can fulfill the task ahead of time.

The professor will give us a talk on how to study English well.

2)介词短语在句中可作表语、定语、状语和宾补等。如:

This machine is in good condition.(表语)

Where is the key to my bike?(定语)

Nothing in the world could live without air or water.(状语)

She always thinks herself above others.(宾补)

2、介词搭配

1)“动词+介词”搭配:注意特定搭配与同一介词与多个动词搭配意义不同的情况。

rob sb. of sth. / clear the road of snow(“夺去、除去

义的动词与of 连用)

supply us with food / fill the glass with wine(“供给”意义的动词与with连用)

make a desk of wood / make bread from flour / make the material into a coat(“制作、制造”意义与offrominto连用)

④介词 + the + 部位与动词的关系(=动词 + sb.’s + 部位,可换用)

strike him on the head(“击,拍,碰,摸意义与on连用)

catch him by the arm(“抓,拉,拿,扯意义与by连用)

hit the boy in the face(“肚,胸,眼,脸”等人体前部与in连用)

prevent(stop, keep)sb. from doing sth.(“阻止,禁止意义与from连用)

persuade(advise, warn)sb. into doing sth.(“说服,建议”意义与into连用)

buy sb. for sth.(leavegetwingainlose等“得失”意义与for连用)

tell sth.to sb.(showteachsingwriteread等“告知”意义与to连用)

give sth. to sb.giveallowpromisepasshand等“授予”意义与to连用)

注意:⑦⑧⑨可换成buy sb.sth.双宾结构。

say to sb.(suggestexplainapologizemurmurwhisper与“对象”连用必须用to)不可说suggest sb.sth.

同一动词与不同介词搭配意义不同。

for(寻找)         to sth.          of(听说)            on(拜访)

look  to (眺望)     agree  with sb.   hear                call   for(需要)

    at(看)           on sth.          from(收到信)        in()

同一介词与不同动词搭配,意义各异。

reply to the letter回信,sing(dance)to the music和……唱(跳),amount to 达到,加起来有……,devote to把……贡献给,drink to为……干杯,object to反对,look forward to 渴望,come to苏醒,belong to属于,search for搜……,ask … for … 寻找,use … for用作,leave for前往,take … for误以为,call of倡导,wait for等待,care for喜欢,make up for弥补损失,turn to求助(救)于,help oneself to随意,agree to同意,compare … to把……比作,send for派人去请(拿)……,sail for驶向,航向,set out for动身去,go in for爱好……。

2)常见“形容词 + 介词”搭配。

        of担心……                  about / at sth.        

 afraid                      angry

        for 替……而担心             with sb.

for sth.渴望……                      from与……不同

amxious                            different

about sth. / sb担心……                to … 不关心……

      of讨厌                            with sb.

tired                             strict

      from/ with因……疲倦                in sth.要求严格

      at擅长                       with sb.受……欢迎

good  for对……有益       popular   in some place流行在……

      of sb. to do so友好             for … 因……而流行

       with + 名词或what从句   

pleased                                         helpful to对……有帮助

       at + 抽象名词(听 / 看到……而高兴)

       to sb.为人所知               be familiar with熟悉

known  for因……而出名       

       as作为……出名             be familiar to为……熟知(悉)

sorry for … 替……悔恨            disappointed at sth.失望

                                from缺席

rich in富有……           absent

                                in离开此地去了……

worthy of值得的,glad about sth. for sb.为某人某事高兴,far from离……远,grateful for sth. to sb.为某事感激某人,free from没有……(免除……),proud of(take pride in)自豪,satisfied with (by)满意,sure of / about确信,fond of喜欢,fit for适合,busy with sth.(in doing sth.)忙着干某事,full of充满,ready for准备,similar to相似,wrong with不对;有毛病……

3)“名词 + 介词”要注意习惯搭配和意义区分。

the absence of water缺水

the hope of success成功的希翼

have a chance of (for) entering college上大学的机会

take pride in them为他们感到骄傲

the key to the question问题的答案

a medicine for cough治咳嗽的药

the ticket for tomorrow明天的票

            in Beijing去了北京      

his abesence                  

            from Beijing不在北京

to study学习方法

the way

of studying maths学习教学的方法

3、核心介词用法归纳与辨析

1)表示时间的介词in的用法如下。

表示在某一较长时间内,如世纪、年、月、季、周等一般用介词in

如:in the 1990s, in the year, in January, in(the) winter / summer / fall / spring, in the first week of May

还可以用时段名词组成固定短语或词组。如:in a while, in no time, in the daytime, in a short while, in time, in the morning (afternoon, evening)。但要注意:

at night / at noon, in the day(在白天),in the night(大夜间)。

in five daysweeks, months, years)中in意思是“在……以后”。

induring表一段时间内两词可互用。如:in the night, during the night, in the war, during the war。但略有区别:当接表示“活动”的抽象名词时多用during,接“活动”的动名词及短语时用in。如:

during the discussion              in discussing the problem

during her stay in Hubei           in playing basketball

during the course of               in digging the tunnel

2)在具体的某一天或某天上午、晚上、前夕,常用on

on Sunday(s).on Tuesday morning

on Christmas Day(at Christmas),on Christmas Eve, on

Children’s Day

on March 8, on the morning (afternoon, evening)of Oct.1

early on the morning of Oct.1(区别:in the late / early morning of Oct.1)

on a rainy night, on warm winter days

(3)表示某一时刻或某一点时间用at,如小时、分钟等。

at breakfast(supper, lunch),at six

at noon (sunrise, sunset, midday, night, midnight, dawn)

at the age of 15, at the time of war,in time of danger/ trouble

注意:有些时间名词前不接介词。如:

next daylast Sundaythat morningthese years

oneeachanyeverysomeall修饰时,一般不用介词,some day

one dayyesterday / afternoon, the night before

4tilluntilto的用法。

till(until)与持续动词连用一般用于肯定句中,与短暂动词连用一般用在否定句中。如:

He waited for me till twelve o’clock.

He didn’t get up till (until) 10 a.m. (不可用to).

但注意:在句首出现或强调句型中一般不用till而用until。如:

Not until 9 a.m.did Mr.Smith come back to school.

to表“终结”时常用和from连用,但要注意不与from连用时的意义。如:from July to September, from six to(till)eight(从……到……为止),但from morning till night(从早到晚),不能用tofrom … to常构成习惯搭配,不可换用其他介词。(A)表持久连续、传递、转移的含义。from time to time(不时,有时)from day to day (天天),from hand to hand(不断传下去)from place to place(处处,到处),from side to side(左右摇摆)from door to door(家家户户),from house to house(挨家挨户),from shop to shop(一个商店接一个商店)。(B)表起始终止的全过程或程度加深、状态变化。from beginning to end(从头到尾,自始至终)from the beginning to the end of…;from hand to mouth(仅能糊口)from bad to worse(越来越糟)from head to foot(从头到脚),from top to bottom(整个地,彻底地),from top to toe(全身)from start to finish(自始至终,从头到尾)。(Cfrom one + 名词 + to another表示“依次”。如from one car to another(顺着车厢依次地)。(D)名词 + by + 同一单数名词,表示“一个一个地”,要与from … to短语区别开:one by one 一个一个地;little by little(bit)一点一点地;step by step 一步一步地,逐渐地(但by and by 不久以后);sentence by sentence逐句地;day by day一天一天地;side by side(with…)(和……)并肩,一起;shoulder to shoulder肩并肩地,齐心协力;hand in hand 手拉手,紧紧地;face to face面对面。

5inafterlater

in + 一段时间:表示说话时为起点一段时间之后,与一般将来时连用;但表示“在……之内”时,用于各种时态。

②一段时间 + later(later是副词):表示某一具体时间或某一方面具体时间算起的一段时间后。

after + 一段时间表示:“在……之后”,用于一般过去时;但时间为点时间时,只能用after,after + 点时间,用于各种时态。

The doctor will be with us in six minutes.

She graduated in 1981, and eight years later she became the manager of the factory.

He received her letter after four weeks.

另外,in + 一段时间 + s + time within + 一段时间的用法如下:

in a week’s time = in a week

They will arrive in three days’ time.(与将来时连用)

My brother’s birthday is in two weeks’ time.(作表语)

I’ll finish the book within two weeks.(within = in less than…用于各种时态,不超出,在……之内)

6)地点介词atonintoacrossthroughoverunderbelow

at 在较小的场所,in在较大的场所,on在……的平面上。如at the

doorat the airportat the stationat 55 Park Streetin Chinain the northin Asiaon the deskon the wall等。

onatin还可以表示两地相对位置。若A地属于B地,用in;A地位于B地的外面且有边缘衔接用on;无边缘的衔接有to。如:

Japan lies to the east of China.(范围之外)

Taiwan lies in the southeast of China.(范围之外)

Hunan province lies on the west of Hubei province.(毗邻)

The island lies off the coast of China.(相隔一定距离)

③地点介词的引申、比喻意义:in the sun在阳光下,in the dark(ness)在黑暗中,in the dark不知道,in freezing weather在严寒天气中,in the mud在泥中,in the earth在地下,in the desert在沙漠中,in a heavy rain 在大雨中,in the snow / wind在雪/风中,in public 当众,in trouble 在困境中,get into trouble陷入困境,out of trouble摆脱困难,beyond hope绝望。

across在物体表面穿过through则表示在三维空间内部“穿过。如:

They walked across the playground.

I walked through the forest.

over / under / above / below

overabove译作“在……之上”;underbelow译作“在……的下面”,其区别在于overunder表示一种直接的、垂直的上下关系;而abovebelow则表示一般的“高于”或“低于”,不一定是垂直“在上”或“在下”。如:

A little boat is now under the bridge.

There is a bridge over the river.

The sun sinks below the horizon(地平线)

The window is well above the tree.

⑥表示地点介词的静态性和动态性

He walked to the station(静态,表示方向和目的地)

He walked towards the station.(动态,只表示方向)

He is kind to (towards)us.(两者通用)

He is at the station.(静态,表示地点)

They arrived at the station.(动态,表示地点)

He swam away from the ship.(动态“离开”)

He stood away from the shop.(静态“远离”)

He fell onto the floor.(动态“到地面”)

The city is on the Changjiang River.(静态“平面”)

Go off the road.偏离了道路(动态“离去”)

Come along the river.沿着河过来(线)

across the fields 跨过田野……,over the desert跨越沙漠

across the river横跨这条河……,over the hill翻过这座山

be in the house(静态,在这里……)stay out of the car(静态,在……外)

go into the house(动态,进入)fly out of the country(动态,离开)

7)表示方式、手段、工具的介词

by the year/hour/day按年/小时/天。如He rent a house by the year(day,hour).(by+the+单位名称)to the pound按磅算,to the ton按吨计。

②表泛指的方式、手段

by post/mail邮寄,by telephone(radio),on the phone/on the radio/on TV(电讯器材)by electricity用电,by machinery用电器,by hard work, learn sth.by heart, through the satellite, through practice, through his own efforts, through experience, through the telescope

     交通工具类

by bus/train/car/taxi(road)

by bike/bicycle, on horse back/on foot

by plane/jet/spaceship, by air

by ship/boat/lifeboat, by sea/by water

另外:by means of 用……方法,by way of 经由,取道于,用……方法,with the help (permission)of sb./with sb.’s help (permission)

④表方式、手段的其他用法

He beat the dog with a whip.(with+工具机器)

One smells with his nose.(with+人体器官,但by hand“手工,用手”)

He stood up with pride.(with+情绪、情感、态度的名词)

注意:使用语言、材料、文字等用in。如in English(ink, pencil)。另外如:in high (good, low)spirits, in anger, in joy, in comfort, in sorrow, in safety, in danger, in need, in debt, in love, in fun, in pain, in tears, in surprise, in good(poor)health, in good order, in flower, in a way, in a low voice, in silence, in(with)satisfaction, in a hurry, in(with)words, live/feed on food, kneel on one’s knee, take(catch)sb. by surprise(出其不意)

8)表示“除……之外”的几组常用先容比较。

besides 除……以外,(还有)。作副词时意思是“而且,更何况”。

Well all went to the cinema besides Shaw.除了肖外,大家都去了影片院。

It was too late to see a film, and besides, I was tired.

except除去,除……之外(不再有)。

We all went except John.大家都去了,约翰没有。

在否定句中,两词可以换用,如:

He has no other hats except / besides this one.

except for除了……(对句子主题进行细节校正或附加说明)后接名词、代词或what从句,此时与except that + 句子意思相同。

He was very clever except for carelessness.

except that … 除了……一点以外。

He has not changed except that he is wearing dark glasses.

butexcept

butexcept在表示“除了……以外”时可以通用,但应注意以下三点:

①前面有不定人词、疑问代词在意义上对称时,多用but

All but one are here.

Nobody but I likes making model ships.

②后接不定式短语为排除对象时,多用but

He has nothing to do but wait.(前有do,后省to

but与一些固定结构连用。

have no choice but to do sth.只得做某事,can not but do sth.不得不,can not help but do sth.不得不……,but for … 如不是……

9betweenamong.

between通常指两者之间。也可以用于三者以上的两者之间。如:

Ann is between Tom and Bill.

Switzer land lies between France, Germany, Australia and Italy.

They soon finished the work between themselves.(共同,合作)

She was busy between cooking, washing, sewing and looking after the baby.(表示接连不断地,一个接一个地忙这忙那)

A horse can be seen between trees now.

among表示三者以上之间。如:

The story is said to have happened in a village among the hills.

He was happy to be among friends again.

We must agree among ourselves.(一起,共同)大家必须达成共识。

London is among the largest cities.( = one of与最高级连用)

10)表原因的介词forbecause ofdue to

He didn’t come to the meeting because of his illness.

The reason for his coming late is that he was ill.

He was praised for his bravery and courage.

The accident is due to your careless driving.

(11)不定式复合结构中的forof

这里所说的不定式复合结构形式指的是for of加上人或事,作动词不定式逻辑主语的结构。

It is clever of you to answer it like that.

It is quite hard for me to explain why.

注意:两句中的offor的使用,表语形容词能够说明不定式逻辑主语的性质、特征与面貌时用of,如果说明不定式行为本身的性质、状态等则用for

12)兼作连词和副词的介词。

aftersincetill / stillbefore这些词既是介词,又是连词。

The children went home at once after school.

They went to bed after they had finished the job.

inonalongdownupafterbeforealongbeyond等介词可兼作副词。

He ran down the hill.(介词)

Can you lift that box down from the shelf for me ?(副词)

③有的介词可以兼作连词和副词。

All the students got to school before me.(before为介词)

We do want to buy something now before prices go up.(连词)

Haven’t I seen you before?(before为副词)

13)介词的省略。

①表示时间的介词onat in的省略。在nextlastyesterdaytomorroweachoneanyeveryall等词之前,可以省略,也可以不省略。如(atlast weekend、(onthat day等。

②介词for表示时间的省略要求。(A)以all开头的名词短语,for要省略。如:I stayed with her all he morning.B)表示一段时间的短语之前,for可以省略,也可以不省略。如:I have been waiting hereI (for) more than three hours.C)否定句中,表示时间的短语前的for不能省略。如:I haven’t seen you for thirty years.(D)时间状语在主句之前,for不能省略。如:For the whole morning, the old man kept reading.

③某些动词短语之后的介词可以省略。

Nothing can prevent me(from)doing the job.

She spent nearly two hours(in)translating it.

14)某些名词与介词构成的固定搭配。

①要求接to的名词有:keyanswervisitentranceapologyintroductionroad等。

②要求接in 的名词有:interestsatisfactionexpert等。

He is expert in teaching small children.

(15)几个常用的并列连词。

both … and, either … or, neither … nor

both … and“双方都”,连接句子的两个主语时,其后谓语动词通常用使用复数形式。either … orneither … nor注意采取“就近原则”。 

not only … but also, as well as

注意:两者强调对象不同,not only … but also强调的是but also之后部分,而as well as则强调其前面的部分。not only … but also采取“就近原则”,而as well as只是一个插入语,采取“就远原则”。如:

Mr.Smith, as well as his wife and children, has come to Nanjing for a visit.

not only … but also结构中的not only可用于句首,连接两个分句时,第一个从句主谓要倒装。

Not only is he clever ,but also he is hard working.

16)几个常用的从属连词。

whenwhileas都表示“当……时候”,when引导的从句的动作与主句的动词可同时发生,也可先后发生;aswhile引导的从句则强调主句和从句的动作同时发生。如:

When I go to the station, the train had already left.

He sang merrily as he was working.

tilluntil均表示“到……时候止”,肯定句中的谓语必须是延续性动作。如:I worked till late at night.若主句谓语是终止性动词,则主句要用否定形式,意为动作“到……才……”开始发生。如:

She didn’t get up until her mother came in.

注意:tilluntil通常情况下可以互换,只是在句首时untiltill更常用。

thoughalthough均引导让步状语从句,意为“虽然……”,although较正式,though最常用。如:

Though (Although)he was tired, he kept on working.

注意:thoughalthough引导的从句不能与buthowever连用,但可以与yetstill连用。though还可以与别的词结合使用,如even though

as though,although则不能这样搭配。

no sooner … thanhardly … whenas soon as三者都表示“一……就”,刚刚……就的意思。(Aas soon as 置于主句前后都可以,而且有备各种时态。如:As soon as she gets here I’ll tell her about it. Mary left as soon as the finished the work.(B)hardly … whenno sooner … than不能表示将来的事,其主句的谓语动词一般用过去完成时,从句用过去时。若将hardlyno sooner放在句首,句子要倒装。如:No sooner had he arrived than he went away again.

⑤某些表示时间的名词(词组)也可用作从属连词。它们是:the moment, the minute,the instant, the day, the time, the first (second, third …) time, the spring (summer, autumn,winter), every(each, next, any) time(day),by the time,都可引导时间状语从句。如:

His mother died the spring he returned.

Call me up the minute he arrives.

二、精典名题导解

选择填空

1. The home improvements have taken what little there is _________my spare time.

 A.  from            B. in           C. of          D. at

解析:答案为C。本题考查句子结构中介词of的有法。what引导的从句作谓语have taken的宾语,而从句中的基本句型为“there is little of …,表示“……有很少”,what 修饰little提到了从句句首。注意正确把握句子结构和介词用法,要明白of my spare timein my spare time的区别。

2. ____________ production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year.

A.  As             B. For          C. With         D. Through

解析:答案为C。本题考查with的复合结构作状语的用法。“with + 名词 + 不定式/分词/名词/形容词/介词短语等”可在句中作伴随、时间、原因、条件等状语。本题中with的复合结构作伴随状语。

3. The changes in the city will cost quite a lot, ___________they will save us money in the long run.

A.  or              B. since         C. for          D. but

解析:答案为D。本题考查并列连词orforbut和从属连词的意义和用法。并列连词or通常表示选择关系;for表示因果关系;but表示转折关系;从属连词since表示原因。通过比较前后两个分句意思可知,它们是转折关系。

4. After she considered the problem, she got a tall box to stand ________.

A.  on              B. up           C. above       D. by

解析:答案为A。不定式“to stand + 介词”作定语修饰a tall box,其中被修饰词在逻辑意义上是不及物动词,只有加上吊尾介词,句子意思才完整。吊尾介词往往由于受到汉语的影响而缺少,吊尾介词使用的场合有:

1)定语从句中,先行词被一个不及物动词所修饰,不及物动词后要接介词,先行词被“动词 + 介词”组成的短语动词所修饰,介词常在句尾。

He is the man I just spoke to.

(2)whatwhosewhowhatever等引导的宾语从句,宾语从句出现吊尾介词。

I can’t imagine what it is like.

(3) 强调句型,特殊疑问句中由于被强调部分和疑问词位置变更,常出现吊尾介词。

It was the poor boy that we gave the books to.

What for? Where to? Who with?

(4)不及物动词的不定式修饰表“涉及对象、场合、工具、方式、材料”等意义的名词时常带吊尾介词。

a room to live in, a bench to sit on

There is nothing to worry about.

She is a good girl to work with.

(5)某些形容词后接不定式或“动词 + 介词”型短语,动词的不定式形式表“反射”,常用吊尾介词。

fiteasyhardcomfortabledifficultheavy等形容词后。

The river is good to swim in.

The box is too heavy to carry.

be worth doing sth.,be worthy of being done / to be done, want/

require / need doing

5.Roses need special care          they can live through winter.

A.  because        B.  so that       C.  even if      D.  as

解析:答案为B。本题考状语从句。全句意为:玫瑰花需要特殊关心,以便过冬(为了安全度过冬天)。其余选项不合逻辑。

6.        you call me to say you’re not coming, I’ll see you at the theatre.

A.  Though         B.  Whether     C.  Until       D.  Unless

解析:答案为D。本题考状事从句,全句意为:我将在剧院门口等你,除非你打电话说你不来了。D项表条件,符合句意。A项表让步,意为尽管;B项表让步,意为“不管……(还是……);”C项表时间,意为“直道……(才……)”,均不和逻辑。

7.Several weeks had gone by         I realized the painting was missing.

A.  as       B.  before        C.  since        D.  when

解析:答案为B。本题考查连词的用法。时间had passed(gone)by before S + did…在不知不觉中过……(已过去了)。 

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